Alexei Pleshcheev: biography. Years of the life of the poet Pleshcheyev
Nikolai Alekseevich Pleshcheev, whose biographywill be briefly described in the article, is a vivid representative of the n intelligentsia of the XIX century. He was a prose writer, poet, translator, literary critic, public figure and revolutionary.
The beginning of the life path
Pleshcheyev's life was full of events, richmemorable facts. A writer was born in a family that belonged to an old noble family. This joyful event occurred at the beginning of the winter of 1825 in Kostroma. From 1826, the family lived in Nizhny Novgorod, where the father of the future poet was transferred to the civil service. However, soon the head of the family dies, and the boy remains in the care of his mother.
The circle of Pleshcheyev's acquaintances by this time is already verywide despite his young age. He is familiar with such famous people as Pletnev, Grigorovich, Krayevsky, Goncharov, Dostoevsky, Saltykov-Shchedrin.
In the middle of the XIX century among the noble youthwas considered prestigious to consist in various social movements, circles, parties. The young Pleshcheyev did not stay away from modern trends. The biography of the poet is full of information about his participation in such organizations, including revolutionary ones. All these passions were passionate and had a direct impact on the fate of the poet.
So, for example, being influenced by influenceBeketov, who directed one of the student circles, Pleshcheev cooled to school and left the university in 1845, without completing his studies. At the same time he began attending the meetings of Petrashevsky's circle. But the young poet had a special craving for the circle of Durov, where not so much political as literature interests prevailed.
Poems Pleshcheeva began to appear in print since 1844year, mainly in such well-known at that time publications as "Otechestvennye zapiski", "Sovremennik", "Literaturnaya gazeta", "Library for reading". In the poems relating to the early period of creativity, the influence of the works of Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov is clearly felt.
Poetry Pleshcheyev inherent motives of sadness,loneliness, romance. In the second half of the fortieth years, the poet's poetry is filled with energy of protest, a call to struggle with injustice, oppression. Plescheev's revolutionary character did not go unnoticed either by fans of his talent or by the authorities.
Years of Reference
In 1849 in Moscow, together with otherfree-thinkers who belonged to the Petrashevites, Pleshcheyev was also arrested. Biography of the poet was replenished with one more page of life. After his arrest, he was taken to the Peter and Paul Fortress of St. Petersburg, where he was imprisoned for about eight months. December 22 at the Semenovskiy parade ground was awaiting execution, which at the very last moment was replaced by a four-year hard labor, deprivation of all rights to inheritance of status and military rank.
Pleshcheev was sent to the city of Uralsk, ina separate Orenburg corps, as an ordinary. Since 1852 the service was held in Orenburg, where for special merits he was elevated to the rank of non-commissioned officer, and in 1856 the officer rank was restored. In 1857 Nikolai Alexeyevich Pleshcheyev was returned to the rank of nobleman.
Over the years of exile, the poet approaches people close to himto him in spirit, such as Taras Grigorievich Shevchenko, poet Mikhailov, Polish revolutionaries. The lyrics of the poet also change. In verse, sincerity appears, and one's own view of certain aspects of life is felt. At the same time, a cycle of poems about the love lyrics is being born. They were dedicated to the future wife of Nikolai Alekseevich.
After the link
The years of life of the poet Pleshcheyev can be divided into twoperiod - before and after the link. Time spent in harsh conditions, only tempered the character of the poet, but did not make him change the progressive ideas.
Many years of Pleshcheyev's life were devoted toeducational activities, which had a pedagogical orientation. In 1861, together with Berg, he published an anthology "Children's book", in 1873, when working together with Alexandrov, a collection for children appeared, where the best works of Russian classical and modern literature were placed. In addition to literary publications, on the initiative of Pleshcheyev educational and educational collections on geography are issued. In total, seven books of different subjects were prepared and published.
Writer and translator
In those years of Pleshcheyev's life, when he worked as atranslator, his whole literary talent appeared. Many verse translations from French, German, English, Slavic languages, made by Nikolai Alekseevich, are still considered the best. Often the poet took up works that had not been translated into Russian before. Per Pleshcheyev also owns some scientific translations on historical and sociological themes. Literary criticism also interested Nikolai Alekseevich, she has a special place in his work.
Throughout his creative activity, the poetdid not leave work on prose. But I must say that the works created by him did not go beyond the traditions existing at that time. Some of the stories and stories can be called autobiographical.
Speaking about the fact that the years of life of the poet Pleshcheyev werefilled with bright events, meetings, acquaintances, hobbies, we can not help but say about Nikolai Alekseevich's predilection for the theater. Pleshcheev himself was an excellent reader. He understood and loved theatrical art. From the poet's pen came plays that were staged on the stages of the leading theaters of the country.
Nikolai Alekseyevich Pleshcheev, whose biography can only evoke the admiration of his descendants, left behind a rich cultural heritage.
Pleshcheev's hundreds of poems are published in collections. Many, becoming classical, are included in the textbook on literary reading.
The life of Pleshcheyev ended on September 26, 1893 in Paris, but Nikolai Alexeyevich was buried in Moscow.