Temple of all the gods in Rome: title, photo, description
About him composed the poems of the classics of world literature,to it aspire the tourists who have arrived to Italy, its images carry on the native land on photos and postcards. Located in Rome, the Temple of all the gods (or, as it is called now, this building, the Pantheon) at the time of its erection was dedicated to the main gods revered in the Roman Empire. The majestic building is one of the most famous architectural monuments of the ancient period, preserved to this day. Years passed, the world changed, and after the fall of the empire the pagan sanctuary was consecrated as the Christian church of St. Mary and the New Martyrs.
History. First Pantheon - Pantheon of Agrippa
The first Temple of all the gods in Rome was built yetbetween 27 and 25 years before our era. Despite the fact that the construction was conducted on the territory of the Roman Empire, the name of the Temple of all the gods in Rome derives from the Greek words: "pan" - "all-embracing", and "theon," which means "divine." It was dedicated to the main gods of the Romans:
- Jupiter - the supreme god-thunderer, who corresponds to Zeus in Greek mythology.
- Neptune - the god of the seas and earthquakes, the Greek analogue - Poseidon.
- Mars - the god of war, he corresponds to the Greek Ares.
- Venus - the goddess of love and beauty, Aphrodite in Hellas.
- Pluto - the god of the underworld, the Greek equivalent is Hades.
- Mercury - the messenger of the gods, the patron of merchants and travelers (Hermes in Ancient Greece).
- Saturn - the titan of time, the Greek version - Kronos (Chronos).
Construction management took on a closefriend and son-in-law of the emperor, consul Mark Agrippa, as evidenced by a bronze inscription on the building. The first Pantheon was facing south and had the shape of a rectangle. The main decoration of the facade of the Roman Pantheon was columns and caryatids - statues of dressed women, replacing the columns that first appeared in ancient Greece. Opposite the Pantheon, on the opposite side of the square, stood the Temple of Neptune. At least this very description of the Temple of all the gods in Rome came to us.
The first Roman Pantheon burned during a fire inthe first century AD, but, like many other temples, was rebuilt under the Emperor Domitian, and its remains are now located at a depth of about two and a half meters.
The construction of the modern Temple of all the gods in Rome
Rebuilt under Domitian the Pantheon of MarkAgrippa was finally destroyed under the reign of Emperor Trajan because lightning struck him, so under Emperor Adrian, who wanted "this sanctuary of all gods to represent the globe and the heavenly sphere," it was completely rebuilt.
According to the markings on bricks, of whicha temple was built, its construction was conducted in the first half of the second century of our era. The architect was one of the greatest architects of the time, Apollodorus Damascus, who supervised the construction of significant structures (among them the Terme and the Arc de Triomphe) not only under Adrian, but also before him, under Trajan.
Unlike its predecessor, the PantheonApollodorus was oriented to the north, and its dimensions significantly increased. Moreover, in the new project to the architectural composition was added a podium of eight steps. The interior space of the temple is able to accommodate a sphere - the ideal model of the universe - with a diameter of 43 meters. The very architecture of the Temple of all gods reflects the representations of the Romans about the structure of the universe. The walls of the temple are thick enough, and their composition varies with height - they are more dense at the bottom, and the upper part consists of lighter materials.
Of course, the most famous view from the facade ismost photos of the Temple of all the gods in Rome, you can consider the sixteen tall columns on which the triangular gable rest. On the pediment there is the same inscription as on the Pantheon of Agrippa. Under the pediment there are holes with which the bronze image of the symbol of power was fastened - an eagle with outstretched wings, which holds an oak wreath in its beak. Many decorated the facade of bronze images of the work of Diogenes of Athens later used to work on the Basilica of St. Peter, many people at that time considered this act barbaric.
Pantheon after the fall of the empire
After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the Pantheon escapeddestruction only due to the fact that in 608 AD was converted into a church by Pope Boniface IV, who a year later consecrated him in honor of St. Mary and the Martyrs. The name was due to the fact that it brought here relics from the Roman catacombs. Approximately forty-five years later, the Constantinian emperor Constant II took out bronze decorative elements and gilded tiles from the former Temple of all gods, which was replaced by lead only after nearly two centuries after the visit of the Constantinople monarch. In addition, after the Pantheon became a Christian temple, all the objects of the pagan cult of the Romans, the depictions of the Roman gods, were destroyed. In the temple, an altar was erected, sculptural images of saints, frescoes on biblical subjects appeared.
In subsequent years, the fate of this majesticthe structure was also unenviable. For a long time he was in desolation, as, for example, during the Avignon captivity of popes. At some point he was at the center of the struggle between the noble Roman families Colonna and Orsini, performing the role of a fortress.
Who is buried in the Temple of all the gods?
The Renaissance era brought the tradition of burying inlarge cathedrals of outstanding people of their time. It did not pass by the Pantheon, where many Renaissance painters found their last shelter, among them one of the greatest masters of their epoch - Rafael Santi, who lies here along with his bride Maria Bibbiena, architect Baldassare Peruzzi, musician Arkangelo Corelli.
Here lie the Italian kings of Savoydynasty. In the former Temple of all the gods, the first of the kings of united Italy is buried - Victor Emanuel II, Father of the Fatherland, as the inscription on his tombstone says. He was glorified by his hard work for the good of the country and his struggle for her unity. The son and successor of the unifier of Italy, King Umberto, shot in 1900, is also buried in the Pantheon, next to his father. Thirty-six years later, the spouse of Umberto, Queen Margarita, was buried in the Pantheon. The guard of the royal burials is provided on a voluntary basis by representatives of the National Institute of Honor Guard.
Excursions to the Pantheon
In the Pantheon you can come as an organizedexcursion, for example, during a tour of Rome, and go alone, with my own eyes, seeing the grandeur of ancient architecture. The entrance to the temple is open from half past eight in the morning until half past seven in the evening and is completely free, however it closes for visitors on January 1, May 1 and December 25 - on public holidays. It is located the Pantheon in Piazza della Rotonda (Piazza della Rotonda). However, there are a number of details that must be considered when visiting.
What should one remember when visiting the Pantheon?
If someone decides to visit, while in Rome, the Pantheon is the Temple of all the gods, he must remember that certain rules must be observed.
- In the Pantheon, the first thing to observe isdress code, because it is an active temple. Clothes should be closed. In extreme cases, you can wrap around yourself one of the scarves from the basket next to the entrance.
- You can not bring food and drinks to the temple.
- Be sure to turn off the mobile phone. But while in the temple you can take pictures and record video.
One of the important distinctive featuresthe cultural object we were considering was the fact that the Temple of All Gods in Ancient Rome was the only place where absolutely any inhabitant of the city could come and pray to his gods. This was an innovation, because before that only priests had access to the temples.
Only once a year - on the day of the summer equinox,June 21 - Sunlight, passing through the "Eye of the Pantheon" (a round hole in the center of the temple dome), illuminates the people entering the temple. On the remaining days at noon, sunlight forms a sort of "pillar," and in other hours it alternately illuminates niches with sculptures of saints, where statues of the gods were previously erected.
The round form of the main part of the Pantheon is due to the fact that once on this place there was a basin, whose foundation became the basis for the temple erected by Agrippa.