The boat of the Eskimos is still relevant today
The world knows the most diverse devices forovercoming water expanses. The boats were made by different peoples from the most unexpected materials; their choice depended on what exactly is rich in the locality where this or that nationality lives. From this point of view, it seems to us the most interesting boat of the Eskimos living, as is known, in very harsh conditions, in places poor in the most familiar materials for us. And while these northern hunters quite successfully engaged in the extraction of fish and marine animals.
Varieties of Eskimo Boats
Any floating facility must matchits purpose. In severe northern conditions, the Eskimo boat could serve for two purposes: hunting, that is, mining provisions, and transportation. Accordingly, the transport ship was called "Umiak" and was a fairly wide boat with an open top where cargo could be stored. Umiak was also considered a female ship, since they were mainly transported by transportation. In turn, the fishing boat from the Eskimos was called "kayak". It was made completely waterproof, tightly closed from above - only a hole was left, clogged by the hunter's body. The kayak was very narrow and steep, with good maneuverability.
From what boats were made Eskimos
In the Far North, in the place of original habitatthis nation, a tree in great deficit. However, the skeleton that the Eskimo boat had was still wooden. For him was going to fin - a forest, worn for years by the ocean waters. In time, when ships began to arrive to these remote shores, the Eskimos began to exchange ready-made boards for hunting results. Preference, however, was still given to the floating forest, because it is much easier than boards.
The wooden base was covered with walrus orSeal skins, taken from the animals just killed. If the skin was taken "stale", it was then necessary to soak it in salt water and beat it, so that it again became elastic. Covered with leather, the boat of the Eskimo was completely sealed and did not let drop a drop of water. Especially if properly stitched with a special suture, to which women were trained since childhood. In addition, to enhance watertightness from the outside, the leather lining was rubbed with oil or grease.
Features of the structure of boats Eskimos
It is thanks to them to sink a kayak that evenon purpose. The Eskimo boat has a center of gravity below the waterline, which makes it extremely stable. Even in the case of tipping it upside down, the rower, with certain skills, will easily turn the kayak into the correct position.
From the inside, the insides of sea animals, inflated by air, were attached to the boat-this increased buoyancy.
The hole in which the hunter was placed was made exactly according to the size of his torso; it was framed by a hoop, on which the hide was stretched, making the whole structure completely isolated from the water.
Across the "deck" stretched straps, whichThe extraction was fixed. For example, the bird was tightly fixed by them, while a large sea beast strap was attached to transverse stretches and towed behind a ship.
In a word, the boat of the Eskimos was extremely reliable and adapted specifically for water hunting.
Modern use of kayaks
Despite ancient history and seemingprimitiveness, fishing boat of the Eskimos in the course and at the present time. Until now, kayaks are making their own for the polar circle. However, this is not the only application of such boats. Recently, more and more popularity is gaining kayaking - overcoming of rivers and large open water spaces, during which an old boat of Eskimos is used. For this sport, it is clear, not self-made kayaks are used (although many amateurs consider chocolates particularly special). Modern boats of this type are made of composite, polyethylene or carbon. However, all the requirements that the Eskimos made from the earliest times to the kayak, are met.