Cycling. Cycling in Russia
It's no secret that for a person a bicycleis a popular and necessary means of transportation from early childhood. At first, the baby will test his strength on a three-wheeled horse, then transplanted to a two-wheeled "aggregate", more rapid. For boys, he becomes a valuable and beloved thing, almost a true friend.
Today, many families prefer to spend their leisure time, taking a walk outside the city or on a dacha on a two-wheeled vehicle.
If we consider cycling, then,of course, it requires full commitment and maximum effort. It assumes a high level of concentration of attention to achieve the set goals. Naturally, people engaged in cycling professionally are different from those who like to sometimes ride with a breeze on a two-wheeled vehicle.
Cycling is a marathon that includesin the Olympic program of competitions. What is the meaning of this exciting sporting event? Everything is very simple. It is necessary to overcome the distance on a bicycle for a short period of time.
Cycling began to form from the moment the two-wheel vehicle was invented.
For the first time a man sat down behind his rudder for the purposecompete in speed in the first third of the XIX century. After a bit of time, the connecting rod was installed on the front wheel of the bicycle, and its design was modernized. In the second half of the XIX century, the apparatus was equipped with a chain transmission, and a few years later pneumatic springs appeared instead of rubber tires.
In 1869, the firstThe sports competition, the route of which ran between Paris and Rouen. The distance between the cities was 120 kilometers. The first place in this competition was awarded to the British Moore: he managed to develop a speed of up to 11 km per hour.
In Russia, cycling appeared in July 1883of the year. Then there was a competition at one of the capital's hippodromes. By the beginning of the 20th century, over two dozen clubs were established in our country, of which thousands of cyclists were members. They not only participated in the competitions, but also helped in their organization.
In 1918 there were competitions, the winnerwho were awarded the right to wear the title of champion of the RSFSR. He rightfully earned the athletes M. Boisher and F. Kryuchkov. After that, in the Soviet Union, systematic competitions began to organize cycling. However, only in the mid-fifties our athletes were able to participate in the world championship, which was the seventh in a row.
It should be noted that the international unionbicyclists was established back in 1900. This structure included the amateur federation of cycling of the international level (FIAC), as well as the federation of professional sports of the international level (FICP). In 1993, the separate existence of these associations was deemed inexpedient, so it was decided to combine them into the International Union of Cyclists, which included 160 federations.
Variations of cycling
It should be noted that cycling is classified into a number of varieties, depending on which route the competition is taking.
Racers can not only sprintsmooth and smooth surface, cycling tracks, but also on the rough, as well as the mountainous terrain. Of course, today, Russia's cycling is going through a "second wind", as the country has a heightened interest not only in racing on the highway and sprint, but also in cycling and cycling.
So, let's dwell on some varieties of cycling.
On what route is the competition most often heldand ride lovers who prefer cycling? Highway, of course. This type of competition involves a general start. The athlete who first crosses the finish line, and will be recognized by the champion. The distance for men is 239 km, and for women - 120 km. Throughout the route there are points where athletes can rest a little: drink water or eat a sandwich. The riders are accompanied by a technical support team that will always help replace the damaged wheel or provide a new vehicle if necessary.
And, of course, many sports fans know that in Italy in the summer time the road race cycle Giro regularly starts. The year 2014 was no exception for this grandiose sports event.
It is a kind of analogue of the Tour de France, organized by its editor of the popular Italian newspaper Gazzetta dello Sport.
This competition is held in three circles, andthe indicators recorded at the last 200 meters are taken into account. Also, athletes compete in the gita (a series of three best), when two riders follow one after another. The winner is the one who gets to the finish line first.
Race for glasses
The goal of the athlete is toto get maximum points at a distance of 40 km for men and 25 km for women. An unlimited number of cyclists are allowed to start. After overcoming the first round, the efforts of the athletes focus on the intermediate tracks, as a result of which earned points are earned. In this case, they are awarded only to four cyclists, who first came to the finish line for 10 laps. The principle of scoring is the following: 1 point for the fourth place, 2 points for the third place, 3 points for the second place, 5 points for the first place.
After the athletes have overcome the distance,the winner is determined: he is the one who has overtaken the last rider in the main group on the circle. And these athletes can be two, three, or even four. In this case, the champion is identified based on whoever scored the most points.
Cycling in Russia, like other countries,was formed gradually: first there were races on the highway, then the practice of racing on the track began, and only in the 50s of the last century a man tried to ride a bicycle in a mountainous area. Mountain biking, which is called mountain biking, is now considered by experts to be one of the most popular for leisure activities, and riding on it is the youngest sport.
It should be noted that a two-wheeled vehiclemovement, specially designed for riding in the mountains, was annually modernized, which can not be said of a standard road bike that for half a century has not undergone any significant changes.
In 1990, the mountain bike received official recognition from the International Union of Cyclists.