Mexico. The population of Mexico. Culture of Mexico
Mexico is one of the largest states,located on the American continent. This applies to both the size of the country and the number of people living in it. Based on the latest census conducted here in 2010, the population of Mexico at the time was just over 112 million people. As of today, according to tentative estimates, the number of residents of the state has risen to a mark of 120 million.
Brief historical information
At the time of the beginning of the expansion of the country by Europeans onthe territory of modern Mexico lived, according to different sources, at least 4.5 million people. Some researchers call the figure 5 times more. Whatever the case, the colonial policy pursued by the conquerors led to the fact that as of 1605 there were no more than one million inhabitants left. Over the next two centuries, the population of Mexico has grown to 7 million. In 90 years the number of local residents doubled. The period after the end of World War II was marked by a phenomenal increase in the number of Mexicans. The average annual increase at this time reached a mark of 3%. In this indicator, Mexico became one of the world leaders. The population of the country in the seventies of the twentieth century was already 70 million people. In this regard, the government adopted a law designed to resolve the situation. In particular, by the year 2000 the average annual increase should not exceed 1%. Such a decision allowed insignificant, but nevertheless to reduce the rate of population growth only in the nineties. This was also facilitated by the mass emigration of the local population in search of a better life in the United States. As of today, as already mentioned above, almost 120 million people live in the state. According to demographic studies, this indicator will continue to grow in the coming years.
The state is inhabited extremely unevenly. The average population density of Mexico is 57 people per square kilometer. Almost 55% of local residents live in the central regions of the country, which account for only 15% of its area. This region in the history of the state has always played the role of a political, cultural and economic center. The population density here reaches 600 people per 1 km2. The northern part of the country, the Yucatan Peninsula and Lower California, are the most densely populated. Here for every square kilometer there are an average of 20 inhabitants.
Until the first Europeans appeared herethe population of Mexico consisted of numerous tribes. Some scientists claim that their number reached the mark of 700. At the same time, the natives spoke in 100 different languages. Over the entire period of colonization, more than 300,000 Spaniards emigrated to the country, who massively married to local residents. Their descendants were mestizos, now predominant in ethnic composition. Their number is more than half - about 65 million people.
The indigenous population of Mexico issecond largest ethnic group. Among the aborigines are the descendants of the Maya tribe, who have long been assimilated in modern society. The number of representatives of Negroid race here is small - about 200 thousand people. Their descendants were brought to the country in the colonial era to work on plantations and mines. Even after the proclamation of the independence of the state, massive immigration of African Americans was not observed. The largest diasporas in the country are the French, Germans, British, Chinese and Japanese.
Virtually the entire population of Mexico (93%)speaks Spanish, who has the status of state. At the same time, one can not but note the fact that not every Spaniard can understand all the words. The fact is that for a long time of use the language came under the influence of Indian dialects. More than a million local residents use Aboriginal languages for communication. They absolutely do not know Spanish, which leads to their inability to receive education. As a result, most of the indigenous people of Mexico are illiterate.
Welfare and employment
As of today, in such a country,as Mexico, GDP per capita averages 16.3 thousand US dollars per year. The area of the economy is characterized by high contrast. In particular, according to official information, more than 40% of the country's annual income is concentrated in 10% of the wealthiest citizens. It is not surprising that in the list of the richest inhabitants of the world, according to the Forbes version, there are 10-11 Mexicans a year. On the other hand, more than one third of the inhabitants of the country live in conditions of moderate and extreme poverty.
The population of Mexico is mainlyagriculture. The unemployment rate in the state is just under 5%. At the same time, it is necessary to note the great role of so-called informal employment. In particular, about 30% of able-bodied residents (and this is 14 million people) are not officially registered. As for the average wage, it is about 4 US dollars a day.
In a country like Mexico, the population and culturefinally formed as a result of the merger of aborigines with Spanish conquistadors. This can be traced in religion, languages and other aspects of life. Along with this, even in the pre-Hispanic period, many representatives of art worked here, whose works have survived to the present day. In this case, we are talking about rock paintings and letters, which are considered a local business card. It is impossible not to mention also the heads, carved from stone by the Olmec Indians, the Maya frescoes and paintings in the heavenly place of the rain god. In the colonial period, the culture of Mexico was more religious in nature and was influenced by Spanish influence, which can be seen in the chapels, altars and the decoration of the walls of the buildings erected at the time.
In the post-revolutionary period, the majoritypublic and government buildings were decorated with the forces of such famous cultural figures as David Siqueiros, Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco. The main theme in art at this time was associated with social and historical themes. At present, North American culture has an increasing influence on the country.
As for religion, the officialthere is no religion in the country. Moreover, according to the constitution of 1917, the church was subjected to certain restrictions. Be that as it may, practically the entire population of Mexico (about 90%) professes Roman Catholicism, about 4% of local residents are atheists, and all other Mexicans adhere to Protestantism and other religious movements.