Government's anti-crisis plan for 2015. Anti-crisis headquarters
The first years of the twenty-first century, called"Putin's epoch", remained in the history of the country quite a contradictory time. The successful development of the Russian economy on the one hand allowed the Russian Federation to enter the first echelon of world leaders, albeit with certain reservations and objections from individual politicians and economists.
On the other hand, periodic crises in theseThe years were tremendously shaking Russia, which was felt by most Russians. Especially difficult time came in mid-2010, when economic roughness overlapped the foreign policy cooling, and Western countries habitually hooked up various kinds of sanctions against our country.
Growth of difficulties in the economy
2014 became one of the most difficult for our country andin general for the population in this century. The fall in prices for hydrocarbons, turbulent events in Ukraine, which caused a whole range of sanctions against our state, increased inflation ... Everything led to difficulties in the economic situation within the state. A significant reduction in the value of the national currency, a decrease in the gross domestic product and an increasing rate of inflation were the economic causes of the crisis that formed in the main sectors of the Russian economy.
Residents of the country in 2014 will be remembered as a majoran increase in the cost of food, imported goods, a fall in the value of cash reserves due to the devaluation of the ruble. Throughout the year, the level of the Russian ruble was reduced only on a large scale twice, bringing down both the well-being of individuals and the country as a whole. The Central Bank's strategic line to maintain the ruble level ultimately contributed to a cutback in financial resources of the country by ninety billion dollars, a price rise of at least fifteen to twenty percent, and a collapse in the standard of living of the majority of Russians.
A difficult situation in the country forced the stateto move away from the policy of contemplation in the economy and to carry out some complex anti-crisis procedures to maintain the current level, since disparate economic reforms proved to be ineffective, and at times even worsened the situation. The development of the government's anti-crisis plan began in 2014. On January 28, 2015, with the end of the discussions and disputes in the government, the final version of the action for the current year was published.
The Government's anti-crisis plan containedsixty points and was quite realistic and full. It was supposed to gradually reduce federal spending this year in the main areas of the economic field by ten percent, and then, the next three years, every year - five percent each. Basically, the government's anti-crisis plan provided for minimizing the costs of secondary articles. Social sphere, health care, education, army, real economy did not affect.
Anti-Crisis Plan of the Government of the Russian Federation
The main sections of the adopted plan included:
- Support for import substitution and export of the domestic economy for a wide range of products not only of raw materials, but also of industrial products.
- Supporting small and medium-sized businesses through reduced monetary and bureaucratic costs, financial and legal support.
- Compensation of additional inflationary losses of the mostsensitive segments of the population (elderly people, students, families with many children, single mothers, etc.) by issuing allowances, additional amounts of wages, benefits, social benefits, and so on.
- Reducing excessive intensity in the labor market and promoting productive employment, both in the capital and in the province.
- Optimization of budget expenditures through the detection and reduction of low-cost expenditures, the concentration of funds on the most important ways of development and the fulfillment of the state's promises.
- Development of a scheme for the rehabilitation of problem-forming system-forming associations and bodies.
Headquarters of the Government
To neutralize the growing economiccrisis was created by the anti-crisis headquarters of the Russian government. Such headquarters were organized at all other levels of the power system: from all-Russian to urban and township. The same staffs were created in raw monopolies, large, medium and small production associations to obtain anti-crisis stability.
The formation of an anti-crisis headquarters united all levels from local private firms to state ministries to counter negative phenomena.
State activities during the crisis
Despite a number of various anti-crisis solutions, most of them concerned two problems:
- Neutralization of the fall in oil and gas pricesproducts. The cost of hydrocarbons is quite tough for the rest of the raw materials. For Russia, with a large share of the raw materials industry, the fall in oil and gas prices was the most severe factor in the crisis.
- Opposition to sanctions from foreign countries (Europe and America).
In general, the program of anti-crisis measures unites inup to 2.3 trillion rubles. Five hundred and fifty billion were supposed to be transferred from state financial organizations to Vnesheconombank (up to 300 billion) and other banks (up to 250 billion). It was planned to bring the capitalization of especially important financial establishments to a volume of one trillion rubles.
Solving the problems of small and medium business
The development of the anti-crisis strategy concerneddirections of reducing the tax burden on small entrepreneurs. Taxes under the simplified scheme were taken in a number of directions. The volume of compulsory deductions dropped from six to one percent, and the difference between income and expenditure - from fifteen to seven and a half percent.
Up to fifty billion rubles were attributed tothe strengthening of the agrarian sector, up to fifty-two billion - to support the labor market and about twenty billion rubles was planned to be allocated for stabilization in the industrial sphere. It was this sector of the economy that was actively developing the import substitution program.
Crisis management of the state
The complexity of the situation in the country has reachedlevel, that the government could not react to it. The anti-crisis management program became the result of the activities of the authorities. Anti-crisis management means such a kind of leadership that occurs in tense conditions of a difficult situation in the economy. The guide concerned not only the redistribution of financial resources, but also the transformation in the sphere of agriculture and industry, trade, and the banking sector. Provision was made for a revision of the ratio of the state and private capital. Characteristic and cautious attitude to the social sphere - the government did not want to cut pensions, scholarships, social payments.
Characteristics of the Government of the Russian Federation
Evaluation of government activities duringcrisis is diametrically opposed: from positive from official analysts, to extremely negative from the opposition. But one thing is certain - the economic decline was proceeding at a smooth pace, the decline in the main economic indicators did not break into the abyss: in 2016, inflation reached from eight to ten percent to fifteen to sixteen percent when calculated by individual methods. The speed of development was directly dependent on the fact that how tight the state policy will be, the gross domestic product will fall by one to four percent at comparable prices. The Russian budget was closed due to the smooth ruble exchange rate with a moderate deficit. Of course, the negative aspects of weak government activity in certain spheres will inevitably affect the economy in the future: the drop in the standard of living of Russians, the crisis of a number of enterprises and even individual industries. But the collapse of the Russian economy, which was expected by a number of domestic and foreign analysts, will not happen.
The economy of Russia in subsequent years
In 2015-2016, the economic situation in Russia in many respects repeated the nineties, but contrary to the expectations of many pessimists, it completely did not coincide with it:
- The rate of the ruble to the dollar was up to seventy rubles;
- The collapse in oil prices at times was less than twenty dollars per barrel;
- the price increase reached fifteen to twenty per cent per month;
- the drop in real incomes reached one hundred percent and so on.
However, the final figures of the fall were moremoderate, and in 2017, even some positive changes began, indicating that the crisis (or recession - depending on the views) is gradually being overcome.