Fire extinguishing water: features, device, system and feedback
Technologies of fire extinguishing systems are developingtogether with general technological progress, offering more and more effective means of ensuring security. It is enough to note a variety of powder mixtures, including the mass of active components that suppress ignition. Still, the most accessible in terms of organization and price remains the water fire suppression, which organically supplements and modern means of delivery of material to the source of fire.
Features of water as a means of fighting fire
The main advantage of water in the context of eliminationsources of ignition is environmental cleanliness, relatively high efficiency and, as a consequence, universality. This resource is used at production facilities, in public buildings and in the private sector. However, both water and foam fire extinguishing is not recommended for use in the fight against fire, if there is a danger of damage to material assets and electrical equipment. Here, the property of water as an electrical conductor already has a negative value. In addition, the use of water is not possible at low temperatures - for example, in the winter or in production conditions operating at a negative temperature.
As for the ability of this material to extinguishfire, the effectiveness of the struggle is determined by the process of reducing the temperature of the source due to the heat capacity of the water. In addition, such fire-extinguishing systems contribute to the cessation of dangerous chemical reactions accompanying combustion.
Designs of water extinguishing installations
To carry out the function of supplying water practicallyall systems use pumping stations with increased pressure, which work at the expense of electric motors. In order to increase reliability, the enterprises use reserve pumps installed on a single platform with the main unit. Spray modules are used to perform the irrigation task. They can have a different configuration of placement, dimensions, feed rate, etc.
In the newest installations, modules are used,allowing to work with finely dispersed water. In addition, water fire extinguishing requires the presence of switchgears in the technical infrastructure. This is an intermediate module that connects the water supply network and the channels through which the material is fed to individual irrigation devices. For the organization of a reliable water supply infrastructure, stainless steel components are used, oriented to operation under high temperature loads. The use of plastic materials from the popular in the plumbing of PVC, for example, in this case is excluded.
Sprinkler water fire extinguishing
Systems of this type are based on waternetworks constantly filled with water at optimum pressure. The technical infrastructure is most often located in the upper part of the premises - for example, under roofs or in a sub-ceiling niche. To supply the channels, a separate water supply line is allocated. Directly the water is supplied to the target area by sprinklers, that is, irrigation sprinklers.
The output devices are equipped with specialnozzles, which under the influence of high temperatures melt, releasing the passage for water. In modern modifications, sprinkler water fire extinguishing installations are carried out not by a direct supply, but by a drip. Moreover, the fraction of the drops is so shallow that during the work a mist is formed, covering the space of the room. This decision is just caused by the desire to minimize damage directly from water for property, which is in the serviced zone.
Arrangement of deluge systems
The deluge installations can outwardly resembleThe previous version of the fire extinguishing system, but it has several principal differences. First, the nozzles of the drenchers are not designed for self-elimination under the influence of fire. They do not burn and do not melt, and, on the contrary, they are made of materials with thermal protection. Secondly, the activation of the quenching function, that is, the process of irrigation itself begins only after the signal is sent from the fire sensors or after a manual start from the operator's console. These can be water and foam fire extinguishing installations that are not filled with working material in the normal standby mode. The supply of the same water to the delivery channels to the sprayers begins only after the appropriate extinguishing command. Therefore, the heads of sprinklers are always open.
Usually deluge systems are used onindustrial enterprises to cover specific areas. There is also a configuration of point sputtering for frontier areas, whose protection is aimed at preventing further spread of fire.
Creation of a fire extinguishing system project
The development of a design solution is based onseveral factors of system operation. First of all, a pipeline layout is formed, which will ensure the possibility of maintaining sufficient pressure when extinguishing water in a particular facility. Calculate the diameter of the pipes, the configuration of their laying, the method of connection, etc. Then calculate the optimal parameters of power equipment.
The main power unit will be a pump. Its capacity is estimated based on the needs of the particular room in the coverage of the sprayers. The fact that the design of water fire extinguishing must take into account the possible intensity of the fire - the higher the threat, the more the number of nebulizers should be present indoors. Accordingly, the total demand for the power potential of the pump is derived. On the basis of the data obtained during the design process, the performers begin the installation activities.
Installation of fire extinguishing systems
The installation process consists of threemain stages. At the first stage, the water mains are laid, through which water will be supplied. Pipes are mounted taking into account large loads and the possibility of maintaining high pressure. The complexity of this exercise is that the water supply channels should be located at the top of the room. Therefore, initially, the design of the premises should provide for a special niche for communications. At the second stage, the installation of water fire extinguishing requires the connection of a pumping station. It will be installed in the place of water intake or pipeline connection to the supply central network.
For a pump it is desirable to provide a smallA platform that can ensure the stability of its position. If the unit is electric, you should provide access to the outlet. At the final stage, the installation of spraying devices - sprinklers or drenchers. They are integrated into the ceiling niche by means of special fittings and are connected to the supplied channels of the water supply line of fire extinguishing.
Accessories for nebulizers
Manufacturers of fire extinguishing systems regularlyimprove water spraying devices, offering technology fittings. When developing a draft fire extinguishing system, it will not be superfluous to think over the sprinkler systems for more reliable operation. In particular, experts recommend using for this purpose bent end pieces made of corrugated stainless pipes. This solution is specifically designed to integrate the same sprinklers in suspended ceilings. Also, to ensure durability, water fire extinguishing is recommended to be protected from accidental mechanical influences. To do this, you can use small metal grilles, frames and even masking caps. But it is important to keep in mind that when starting up the system, these devices should instantly recline.
Automation in fire extinguishing systems
Both deluge and sprinkler systems can beautomated. This means that the system will be managed without operator involvement. Automatic fire extinguishing systems are implemented with the help of controllers and sensors - the basic set of modern fire alarms. Regarding the controller, its tasks include sending a signal about the beginning of the fire on the module that opens the valves for water supply to the spray nozzles, notification of the responsible person about the fire and the start of the pumping station. Automatic fire extinguishing is also possible without sensors. These are devices that directly record the fact of ignition, transmitting the corresponding signal to the controller.
Reviews about water firefighting
Most users of water systemsFire extinguishers are owners of storage facilities, enterprises, studios and shops. According to them, the design itself is reliable and stable operation. The efficiency of spraying also does not cause censures, although this characteristic depends on how well the nozzle installation was implemented. Praise for water and fire for a small cost of consumables. Water is much cheaper compared to powder, gas and even foam systems. As for the minuses, the complexity of the technical design of the pipeline is noted.
An experienced eye of a firefighter can quickly identifyweaknesses in the target room for possible sources of ignition. And just as quickly determine the most effective configuration of the location of the functional components of the system. Because experts are approaching the task of organizing fire safety in a comprehensive manner, considering a variety of different nuances. If the task is to organize a universal protection complex, then the automatic water fire extinguishing system will be the optimal solution. Its advantage is not only the disposal of personnel from unnecessary actions and prompt response to the emerged hotbed of fire, but also the possibility of combining with other engineering equipment. For example, with a ventilation system - if a fire or smoke is detected, the same controller will command not only the extinguishing system, but also the air duct valves that will close or, on the contrary, open the mine, depending on the place of fixation of the fire.