Methods of biomicroscopy of the eye
Biomicroscopy of the eye - modernDiagnostic method of the study of vision, carried out with the help of a special device - slit lamp. A special lamp consists of a light source whose brightness can vary, and a stereoscopic microscope. Using the method of biomicroscopy, the anterior section of the eye is examined.
This method is used by the oculist in the complexwith a standard test of visual acuity and eye fundus diagnosis. Biomicroscopy is also used if a person suspects having a pathology of the eye. The abnormalities in which the doctor prescribes this examination include: conjunctivitis, inflammation, foreign bodies in the eye, neoplasms, keratitis, uveitis, dystrophy, opacities, cataracts and the like. Biomicroscopy of the eye is prescribed for examining the vision before and after surgical treatment of the eye. Also, the procedure is appointed as an additional measure for diseases of the endocrine system.
How does the procedure work?
The process of biomicroscopy of the eye does not causepain in the patient. Man only observes the ray of light and fulfills the requests of the doctor. The procedure does not require any special training and is carried out quickly. Biomicroscopy is carried out in a darkened room. The oculist makes sure that the person is in the right position: the chin is on a special headstand, and the forehead is leaning against a certain place on the bar. After the patient has correctly placed his head on the support, the oculist starts the research process. The doctor changes the direction and brightness of the light beam, while observing the reaction of the eye tissues to changes in illumination. The process of biomicroscopy of the anterior segment of the eye allows you to know about the state of the lens and the anterior zone of the vitreous. Also, the doctor examines the tear film, eyelid edges and eyelashes. The procedure lasts about 10 minutes. Usually this time is enough to diagnose the patient.
Application of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool inModern ophthalmology is based on the properties of ultrasonic waves. Waves, penetrating into the soft tissues of the eye, change their shape depending on the internal structure of the eye. Based on the data on the propagation of ultrasonic waves in the eye, the oculist can judge its structure. The eyeball consists of sections having a different structure in the acoustic plane. When an ultrasonic wave hits the boundary of two sections, the process of its refraction and reflection occurs. Based on the data on the reflection of waves, the ophthalmologist makes a conclusion about the pathological changes in the structure of the eyeball.
Indications for ultrasound examination
The study of the eye by ultrasound -high-tech method of diagnosis, which complements the classical ways of detecting pathologies of the eyeball. Echography usually follows the classical methods of examining the patient. In case of suspicion of a foreign body in the eye, the patient is first shown radiography; and in the presence of a tumor - diaphanoscopy.
Ultrasound diagnosis of the eyeball is performed in the following cases:
- to study the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye, in particular its topography and structure;
- examination of the position of the intraocular lens;
- for carrying out measurements of retrobulbar tissues, as well as examination of the optic nerve;
- when examining the ciliary body. The eye membranes (vascular and mesh) are studied in situations with difficulties in the process of ophthalmoscopy;
- when determining the location of foreign bodies in the eyeball; evaluation of their penetration and mobility; obtaining data on the magnetic properties of a foreign body.
Ultrasonic biomicroscopy of the eye
With the advent of high-precision digital equipmentit was possible to achieve a high quality of the processing of echoes obtained in the process of biomicroscopy of the eye. Improvements are achieved through the use of professional software. In a special program, an ophthalmologist can analyze the information received both during the survey and after it. The method of ultrasonic biomicroscopy owes its appearance to digital technologies, since it is based on the analysis of information from the piezoelement of a digital probe. For the survey, sensors with a frequency of 50 MHz are used.
Methods of ultrasound examination
In ultrasound, contact and immersion methods are used.
The contact method is simpler. With this method, the probe plate contacts the surface of the eye. The patient is injected with an anesthetic into the eyeball, and then placed in the chair. With one hand, the ophthalmologist controls the probe, doing the research, and the second adjusts the operation of the device. A tear fluid acts as a contact medium in this type of examination.
Immersion method of biomicroscopy of the eyeIt involves placing a layer of special liquid between the surface of the probe and the cornea. A special nozzle is installed on the patient's eye, in which the probe sensor moves. Anesthesia is not used in the immersion mode.