Causes and prevention of pressure sores
Bedsores occur due to compressioncertain areas of the body. This is due to prolonged contact with a solid surface: a bed, a tire, a wheelchair. The mechanism of pressure sores is based on bleeding and necrosis of tissues in places where the skin is squeezed.
The most common cause of pressure soresis tissue necrosis. As you know, the blood vessels located on every centimeter of the skin, nourish it and oxygenate it. When clamping the vessels due to prolonged pressure, necrosis or tissue necrosis occurs, which leads to the formation of pressure sores.
Bedsores can also occur due to displacementlayers of skin. If the patient is constantly pulling on the bed or pulling sheets, a vessel or wet underwear from under him, there is a violation of blood supply, which can lead to the formation of pressure sores.
Most often, the disease occurs in the obese or toothin people, people with poor nutrition, heart disease, diabetes, increased sweating. The risk of trouble is observed in those who suffer from incontinence of urine or feces. For such patients, prophylaxis of pressure sores is very important.
Adverse factors of occurrencedecubitus is the presence of crumbs or foreign objects on the bed, dirty skin, creases in bed linens, allergic reactions to cleansers for skin care.
Most bedsores are formed in areasbodies that are above the bony protrusions and come into contact with a solid surface. In these parts of the body is very little subcutaneous fat, which plays the role of a pillow and reduces pressure on body tissues.
The most important measure that prevents damage and squeezing of tissues is the prevention of pressure sores.
To reduce the pressure on the tissues, bedridden patientsyou need to buy an anti-bedsore mattress (Silver, Dream Line, Lonax). It improves blood circulation of tissues and has the effect of massage, which has a positive effect on the skin and prevents squeezing. If you can not afford an anti-decubitus mattress, you can use a regular foam foam mattress.
Often turn over and change the position of the patient, but do this with the utmost care to avoid compression or displacement of tissues.
Prophylaxis of decubitus lies in the correctcare of the patient. The bed should be clean, without crumbs or foreign objects, bed linen should not contain seams, buttons or ribbons, which can rub the skin and lead to pressure sores. If the patient lies on his back, a rubber circle can be placed under his rump.
Prophylaxis of bedsores by means of differentdevices (rollers, rubber circle, mattress) is aimed at increasing the area of the body, which is in contact with a solid surface. Thus, tissues improve blood circulation and blood supply, which significantly reduces the risk of bedsores.
Eating bedridden patients should be diverse and contain the entire complex of essential substances and vitamins to nourish the skin.
An important preventive measure is compliance withrules of hygiene. More often wash the patient, change bed linen, spend toilet crotch and genitals. Cal and urine irritate the skin, which increases the risk of pressure ulcers. Bedding and accessories should be soft, this can be achieved by repeated washing. Therefore, for bedridden patients, old clean clothes. It is much softer than new, so do not rub your skin.
An important condition for the prevention of pressure soresis the temperature regime in the room where the patient is. Excessive overheating leads to sweating, which has a harmful effect on the skin and leads to the appearance of ulcers.
Use neutral hypoallergenic detergentsmeans, after the toilet, do not wipe the patient's skin, but gently soak through. Use moisturizing cream, powder, ointment. In case of urinary incontinence use diapers and special pads.