Hemorrhage in the brain of a newborn: causes and consequences
Hemorrhage in the brain of a newborn, alsoknown as intracranial bleeding, is caused by the rupture of blood vessels inside the skull. This can be the result of lack of oxygen or deformation of bones during childbirth. Hemorrhage in the brain is more common among preterm infants when there is ischemia - insufficient blood flow to the brain, and hypoxia - a decrease in the amount of oxygen in the blood.
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs inthe space between the arachnoid and the soft membranes covering the brain. It is the most common type of intracranial hemorrhage and, as a rule, occurs in full-term children. With subarachnoid hemorrhage the child in the first days of life can have seizures from time to time. Then the state is normalized.
Subdural hemorrhage occurs betweenexternal and internal shells of the brain as a result of head trauma. Currently, it is rare because of improved methods of delivery. If there is a subdural cerebral hemorrhage in a newborn, the consequences can be severe. Bleeding can lead to a heavy load on the surface of the brain, which can lead to a high level of bilirubin in the blood or cause the development of neurological disorders.
- Intraventricular hemorrhage in the brainThe newborn occurs in cerebral cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid (ventricles). Most often it occurs in severely premature children due to brain underdevelopment. An increased risk of developing such bleeding is infants born before the 32nd week of pregnancy. Since the still developing brain of premature newborns has greater endurance, hemorrhage usually occurs in the first three days of life and does not cause subsequent problems. More serious bleeding leading to complete filling of the ventricles with blood can lead to damage to the "gray matter", which is associated with complications such as cerebral palsy and behavioral problems.