Chronic nephritis: causes, symptoms, treatment
Urinary system pathologies arevery common. Kidney damage causes the development of their functional failure. What are the features of chronic kidney inflammation? What therapy is required?
Chronic inflammation localized in the kidneyscalled "jade". Bilateral organ damage is common. The etiological factor of the disease may be different. It is on the cause of the origin of the classification of jade. All these variants of inflammation differ not only in nature, but also in the clinical picture.
One of the etiological options ispyelonephritis, which is more common in the female half of the population. Inflammation affects the calyx and pelvis, and the cause of such a lesion is infection. It penetrates the kidney either with blood (hematogenous) or through the urethra. The inflammatory process is accompanied by a violation of urination, and blood may be detected in the urine. The pains are localized in the lumbar region, they become intense during the period of exacerbation.
Another option is glomerulonephritis, whichaffects the glomeruli and partially tubules. To provoke an inflammatory process can immune disorders. Also predisposing factors are oncological formations and abscesses. Chronic process is characterized by relapses. During this period, nausea, dry mouth, weakness and impaired stool occur.
Radiation jade occurs after exposure toorganism ionizing radiation. There is a rapid inflammation of the tubules, accompanied by early dystrophy, and after - atrophy. This causes renal failure. In the chronic period, concern weakness and high blood pressure.
Tubulo-interstitial nephritis - another speciespathology. Inflammation covers the tubules, as well as interstitial, or intermediate, tissue. The cause may be the action of toxic drugs, some drugs. The viral nature of the disease is possible. Organs are characterized by hypertrophy - increase in size, their function is impaired.
Also distinguish hereditary nephrite. It includes Alport syndrome, which is accompanied by impaired hearing and vision. In men, the pathology is more severe.
What are the symptoms of all types of jade?
Chronic form is characterized by constantedematous syndrome, which is a sign of metabolic disorders. In a laboratory study, albuminuria and cholesterolemia are noted. In addition, characteristic hypertension, that is, a periodic increase in pressure.
Late stages are characterized by such deterioration.renal function, which is observed intoxication syndrome. As a result, toxins and slags (nitrogen compounds) appear in the blood. Symptoms of this syndrome are fatigue, general malaise, headaches and increased blood pressure. With an increase in uremia, that is, the accumulation of uric acid, it may be excreted with sweat. The skin becomes dry. In more severe cases, death is possible.
In the period of recurrence of the chronic form of the mainthe complaint is severe pain, localized in the lumbar region and pelvis. Urination becomes painful, there is a burning sensation. Laboratory tests can detect blood in the urine, purulent discharge. Observed oliguria - reduced diuresis. Edema persist. Supplements include headaches, nausea (often vomiting), fatigue, xerostomia, diarrhea, fever, and hypertension. Chronic nephritis can turn into an aggravation when overheating, overcooling, and infectious process.
Chronic nephritis is usually the outcomeacute variant. Inflammation subsides and is complemented by hyperplastic processes. During nephritis, fibroblast activity is activated, the main function of which is the formation of connective tissue components. When stimulating their activity, hardening occurs. The structural elements of the kidney are irreversibly replaced by connective tissue. Since it does not perform functions specific to the renal parenchyma, the activity of the urinary system is disrupted - renal failure develops.
Glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis,tubulo-interstitial nephritis and other species must be differentiated from each other, as well as from other pathologies. Diagnosis is based on questioning, inspection and the results of additional methods. First of all, the patient is interviewed to find out the probable etiology — infections, toxic effects, medication, and so on. Among the standard methods - urine and blood tests that will help detect pathology. Recommended urinary tests, such as Zimnitsky and Nechiporenko. They will help to track not only the composition of urine, but also the state of daily diuresis. An effective diagnostic method is biopsy, that is, tissue sampling for histological examination. It will help to track the processes of hardening. Ultrasound, X-ray and tomography are also practiced.
Additional methods allow you to confirm the diagnosis. It is possible to suspect nephritis on the basis of complaints (edema and arterial hypertension).
Treatment of kidney nephritis depends on the etiologydiseases. For example, bacterial pathologies require the prescription of antibiotics ("Cefuroxime", "Ciprofloxacin"). A viral cause (eg, tubulo-interstitial nephritis) requires appropriate antiviral therapy. That is why it is important to differentiate the various etiological variants of the disease.
In addition to etiotropic therapy requiredsymptomatic treatment. Cytostatics are prescribed ("Doxorubicin", "Cyclophosphamide"), which help protect functional cells. In the period of relapse, anti-inflammatory drugs are necessary, which reduce pain, plethora and swelling in the area of the pathological process. Increasing blood pressure requires the use of antihypertensive drugs ("Lisinopril", "Captopril").
During the period of illness should be monitored nutrition. Chronic nephritis affects the kidneys, therefore, the excretory function is disturbed. That is why you should avoid excessive salt intake. Canned food, spices and large amounts of alcohol are contraindicated.
Chronic kidney nephritis is usuallythe outcome is acute. Consequently, preventive measures consist in the early diagnosis and subsequent treatment of acute inflammation of the kidneys. It is possible to suspect the disease at an early stage if regular medical examinations are carried out - deviations in the general urinalysis are an indication that the patient should be referred for consultation to a nephrologist.
Nephritis is a kidney disease that causes them to break.functions. The chronic form is irreversible and leads to the formation of renal failure. Pathology requires correction of lifestyle and the use of a number of drugs. Preventing her education will help timely treatment of the acute form. Timely diagnosis will help in this.